Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection during pregnancy. Due to predisposing factors such as urinary stasis and vesicoureteral reflux, there are greater risks of upper UTIs during pregnancy. Untreated upper UTIs are associated with low birth weight, prematurity, premature labour, hypertension and/or preeclampsia, anemia, and amnionitis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria found on a midstream urine culture is a risk factor for an upper UTI. Timely treatment reduces the risk of symptomatic infection with its associated risks. A follow-up culture for test of cure should be obtained at one week after completion of treatment; up to 30 percent will fail to clear asymptomatic bacteriuria. If a repeat urine culture is positive or if symptoms remain, physician referral is required.
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